Automotive: around the world, there were about 806 million cars and light trucks on the road in 2007, consuming over 980 billion litres of gasoline and diesel fuel yearly. The automobile is a primary mode of transportation for many developed economies. Emerging markets accounted for 51 percent of the global light-vehicle sales in 2010.
>> Heavy industry
Heavy industry: the manufacture of large, heavy articles and materials in bulk. Many East Asian countries rely on heavy industry as key parts of their overall economies. This reliance on heavy industry is typically a matter of government economic policy. Among Japanese and Korean firms with “heavy industry” in their names, many are also manufacturers of aerospace products and defense contractors to their respective countries’ governments such as Japan’s Fuji Heavy Industries and Korea’s Hyundai Rotem, a joint project of Hyundai Heavy Industries and Daewoo Heavy Industries.
Energy: the IEA estimates that, in 2013, total primary energy supply was about 18 TW-year. From 2000–2012 coal was the source of energy with the largest growth. The use of oil and natural gas also had considerable growth, followed by hydropower and renewable energy. Renewable energy grew at a rate faster than any other time in history during this period. The demand for nuclear energy decreased, in part due to nuclear disasters (e.g. Three Mile Island 1979, Chernobyl 1986, and Fukushima 2011). More recently, consumption of coal has declined relative to “renewable” energy. From 2015 to 2017 coal dropped from about 29% of the global total to 27%, and non-hydro renewables were up to about 4% from 2%.
In 2011, expenditures on energy totalled over 6 trillion USD, or about 10% of the world gross domestic product (GDP). Europe spends close to one-quarter of the world’s energy expenditures, North America close to 20%, and Japan 6%.
>> AEROSPACE INDUSTRY
Aerospace industry: The aerospace industry is a typical industry with high knowledge and technology and high added value. Aircraft flying in the atmosphere or in space must be strictly controlled and minimize their weight. This puts stringent requirements on the design, manufacture, and structural materials and electronic components and devices of the aircraft. Therefore, the aerospace industry needs to adopt contemporary advanced scientific and technological achievements, which are often the departments that reflect a country’s level of science and technology and industrial development.
The aerospace industry is a highly sophisticated and comprehensive industry. Aerospace products have high technical indicators, long development cycle, a wide variety of components, and some products are related to the safety of personnel, production volume is not large. In the development process, sufficient research and testing are required, and complete testing facilities and perfect technical safeguard measures are required. In order to ensure that hundreds of thousands or even millions of components and components are assembled to meet the specified reliability and longevity indicators, scientific management methods must be applied. Therefore, the aerospace industry is the industrial sector with the most practice in systems engineering and modern management engineering.
The aerospace industry is an industry that is closely integrated with military and civilian use. For a long period of time, military needs have always been an important driving force for the development of the aerospace industry. In many cases, civilian products have developed in the field of military product technology development. This is the case when jet technology is used for civil aviation and rocket technology is used to launch satellite applications.